DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a type of nucleic acid containing two chains of nucleotides which are bound together and which is responsible to find out the inherited characteristics of a person. Historically, it is possible to extract DNA only from clear blood specimens or any other body fluids. But with the modern technology, today DNA can be found not from just blood and other body fluids but also from licked stamps, used razors, dental floss, sweaty T-shirts and even hair, saliva etc.
Once the samples are collected from an accident spot or directly from the patient, the samples are sent to a laboratory. Here the samples are cleaned. The DNA is further cut into very small pieces with the help of enzymes. It is then categorized in sizes using ‘gel electrophoresis.’ All human beings share about 99.9% of DNA but there are still some regions in our body that differ.
Most of the times, a DNA is carried out to find out the paternity of a person. This usually takes place when couples file for divorce and claims to have their children in their possession. If the court approves, the DNA of the dad is matched with that of the child. If both the DNA samples match, it means that he is the rightful father. There is no need to check the DNA of a mother as she is the one who gives birth to the child and hence, it is understood that her DNA will match with that of her children.,
Apart from checking the paternity of a person, DNA is also very important at scenes of crime. Here the blood samples or strand of hair, nail or flesh is taken to identify the criminal. With this identification it becomes easier for the forensic and the police to catch and identify the thieves involved in the crime.